As Internet of Things (IoT) becomes a growing reality, more ubiquitous devices are embedded in our daily lives, serving us in a broad range of purposes in everyday life from: personal healthcare to home automation to tailored smart city services. These devices primarily collect data that is about or produced by people, be it street noise level of a neighbourhood, or the energy footprint of an individual’s home or her location and other situational context. As this unprecedented amount of data is collected, we are challenged with one fundamental research question: who owns this data and who should have access to it?
Specifically, the emergent of the Human Data Interaction (HDI) topic which aims to put the human at the centre of the data driven industry, calls attention to the IoT community to address the data ownership aspect more carefully. In this note, we offer a reflection on the challenges that IoT faces in regards to the data ownership in HDI and advocate the roles that both ordinary people and industries must play to best answer those challenges in shaping the IoT landscape.
For instance, using one of these living services, I might connect my car to my smart garage door opener, which Iâ€™ve connected to my smart lock, which activates my smart thermostat that Iâ€™ve synced to my smart lighting system. I can program them all to simultaneously interact and do their jobs when I turn onto my driveway. My experience of coming home is enhanced, since everything is acting according to my preferences.
The data show that the most heavily used IoT programs are ones that make home life easier, more distinctive, and more pleasant. Respondents also show a big preference for services that donâ€™t require them to go out of their way to make something work. People using the Internet of Things increasingly prefer interfaces that are more natural and less visible (and attention-sapping) than screens. In other words, they donâ€™t want to type instructions on a tablet, interact with a device, or mess with settings on a cell phone to get what they want. Instead, they value these technologies as â€œliving servicesâ€ that anticipate their wants and act on them.
Here are four underlying types of living services we identified in the data and what they mean for using in the human-centred IoT way.
Technology that extends security. People want to be safe at home. There are literally dozens of IoT solutions in this area. For example, one system called Presence turns old iPhones and Android devices into rotating home cameras. It uses software that connects old phones with functioning cameras to your current smartphone or PC, so you can view areas in your house remotely. Other companies are building more comprehensive solutions. For instance, Microsoft and SmartLabs have introduced a kit that allows people to remotely control motion sensors and surveillance cameras at home using the Internet Protocol. Basically, they can monitor their homes from anywhereâ€”they can see who is entering the house when theyâ€™re away, or they check in on a sick child or elderly parent. And Googleâ€™s Nest and Appleâ€™s HomeKit are also working on technologies that will help people monitor their home security systems using the services they already provide.
Apps that quantify the self. People are interested in data that tells a story about themselves. We want to know how we compare to others, in terms of emotional intelligence, Body Mass Index, etc. You can pick pretty much any point of self-measurement and people will want to know their number. So itâ€™s not surprising that self-quantification is one of the most avidly downloaded IoT applications at home. Tracking our sleep patterns and levels of daily activity, and looking at simple dashboard analytics to understand this data, is just one example of how we self-quantify. The devices that do this, primarily wristbands with embedded sensors and software, are among the Internet-enabled consumer products that have taken off the fastest.
Services that optimize our machines. People like IoT services that automatically do what they would otherwise have to do manually. One of the most popular programs, turning on interior lights when the sun is settingâ€”is a good example of how smart, connected devices can be optimized to save people time and money. There are new products that can automatically adjust air-conditioners, heaters, and other devices that use electricity, depending on when people are more likely to need them. The investments being made to add sensors and other internet technology to home appliances by established companies such as General Electric and Whirlpool, and start ups like Chai Energyâ€”suggest that rising supply will lead to greater demand. This is also another area where we might be willing to let devices and appliances track our behaviours so that they can learn about our preferences and predict our needs.
Creative ways to enhance daily experiences. Few people can afford to spend thousands of dollars on putting sensors and custom-built technology into their homes (as Microsoft founder Bill Gates is said to have done with giant computer screens that display famous art and photos as people walk around his Seattle-area home). But as the Internet of Things scales up and becomes more ubiquitous, many experiences will become available in everyday homes, at less exorbitant prices. These could be IoT platforms that connect smart devices and sensors to augment everyday moments by tapping into sensory aspects of our environment like visuals, temperatures, and sounds. One of the most popular single programs we identified connects the Weather Channel and the Phillips Hue Lighting system in which internet-enabled lights turn blue in specified rooms if it starts to rain or Pavegen Application Programming Interface (API) Lighting System, which is a unique, wireless system that allows the Pavegen units to collect, monitor and communicate real-time data, which in turn can be used for footfall analytics, data visualisations, or social media andÂ technology in cities of the future, helping to automate our communities and enabling smart technology interaction.Â With living services, these elements are connected over the web and interact using sensor technology. You can think of many different uses for this type of experience-enhancing technology. For example, a writer who likes to increase focus with classical music and natural lighting wonâ€™t have to manually get up and make those changes; the various devices in the room can activate those settings automatically. This personalization speaks to a hunger for technology experiences that make homes feel distinctive.
The human-centered applications that are so popular in our sample of early IoT adopters generally relate to home activities. But the larger trend of personalized services that take up residence alongside us, so to speak, and learn from our behaviors is context-agnostic. People at work, no less than people at home, are going to want this. So maybe the way to think about these human-aware home applications is that weâ€™re looking through a peephole. What weâ€™re getting a glimpse of now are digital services that will increasingly live with us at home, at work, anywhere in the future.
Finally, as Bruce Lee once said, “Always be yourself, do not go out and look for a successful personality and duplicate it.”