The cornerstone of great leadership is authenticity. Leaders ask us to believe, to give more, as well, to sacrifice. To trust a leader, his or her leadership must be genuine, a true reflection of their strengths, values and culture. Leaders can engender that trust in many different ways, leading from the front or the back, provided their authenticity is apparent.
We all recognize great leadership when we see it. But what characterizes great leadership? Stanford professor Jeffrey Pfeiffer identified: modesty, authenticity, truthfulness, trustworthiness and selflessness? Or is it a great manager of people, someone who understands the aspirations of each report, charts a career path, assigns meaningful work along that path and champions their promotion? Or perhaps leadership means having the courage to make the hard, but right decision?
Well, each leader has a different leadership style. Some excellent storytellersÂ with aÂ vision on stage to enrapture their teams, while more understated leaders from behind laud the accomplishments of their teams, using other voices to captivate. Still others challenge, demand and push. They all lead.Â Nelson Mandela popularized the idea of leading from behind. â€œIt is better to lead from behind and to put others in front, especially when you celebrate victory when nice things occur. You take the front line when there is danger. Then people will appreciate your leadership.â€
Joshua Rothman asks What is leadership? in Shut Up and Sit Down, a New Yorker primer on leadership books, advice and research. Rothman highlights HBS professor Gautam Mukundaâ€™s research contrasting success by promoting internal leaders with hiring external ones. Mukunda observed some organizations like the military filter their leaders by requiring them to rise through their ranks before attaining a leadership position. Companies often hire external CEOs who havenâ€™t been filtered. He concludes filtered candidates ultimately exhibit similar leadership characteristics and success as their predecessor, while unfiltered candidates are highly variable – either much better or much worse than the internal candidate; they are the tails of the Gaussian distribution.
Finally Joshua Rothman concludes, ‘To some extent, leaders are storytellers; really, though, they are characters in stories. They play leading roles, but in dramas they canâ€™t predict and donâ€™t always understand’ – an unsatisfying answer. There may never be a canonical definition of great leadership because like writing or speaking or managing, we can be successful with many different styles. Studying other great leaders is important, of course, to add new techniques to aÂ follow and reflect into practice.